The Centers for Disease for Control and Prevention (CDC) released recommendations for Moderna and Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccination boosters on Oct. 21. Based on the new recommendations, adults with myeloproliferative neoplasms who received the Moderna vaccine may be eligible for a booster, depending on personal factors. All adults who received the Johnson & Johnson vaccine are eligible regardless of health status or other factors. Additionally, the CDC and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have approved mix and match boosters, which allow people to receive initial doses of one type of COVID-19 vaccine and a booster of another.
A COVID-19 vaccine booster is administered when someone developed adequate immunity after the initial vaccine dose or doses, but that immunity has decreased over time.
The following groups are now eligible for a booster shot at least six months after their second dose of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine:
The FDA and CDC approved booster shots following Pfizer vaccinations for the same groups in September.
All adults over 18 who received the single-dose Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine are eligible for a booster shot at least two months after receiving their shot.
The CDC recommendations were released after the FDA amended the emergency use authorizations for the Moderna and Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccines to allow for booster doses.
The FDA authorized mix and match booster doses for the three COVID-19 vaccines available in the United States. This means you can receive a booster dose of a different vaccine from your original vaccine. For example, any adult over 18 who received the Johnson & Johnson vaccine can receive a booster dose of the Pfizer, Moderna, or Johnson & Johnson vaccines at least two months after receiving their shot. Those who have received the Pfizer or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines and are eligible for a booster may receive it from any of the three companies six months after their second dose.
People with MPNs (including myelofibrosis, essential thrombocythemia, and polycythemia vera) who are considered immunocompromised may be eligible for a third dose of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines at least 28 days following their second dose. These additional doses may be recommended for those who did not develop an adequate immune response after the two-dose vaccination series.
The FDA amended the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines’ emergency use authorizations on Aug. 12 to allow a third vaccine dose for certain immunocompromised individuals.
Individuals defined as immunocompromised include:
In an FAQ about myeloproliferative neoplasms and COVID-19, the American Society of Hematology states that “booster doses of vaccines may be of benefit” for people with MPNs.
The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society recommends that people with blood cancer who are fully vaccinated against COVID-19 get an additional dose of the vaccine in accordance with CDC guidance.
If someone with an MPN is not considered immunocompromised based on their medications or other health factors, they may be eligible for a Pfizer or Moderna booster six months after the second dose of their COVID-19 vaccine — depending on their age and other health conditions.
The CDC’s list of underlying medical conditions that would make someone eligible for a Moderna or Pfizer booster six months after their second dose doesn’t explicitly list MPNs as a condition that may qualify someone for a booster shot. The list of underlying medical conditions includes chronic lung disease, diabetes, heart conditions, obesity, smoking or smoking history, and HIV infection, as well as several other conditions.
Talk to your doctor if you have questions about your eligibility for an additional COVID-19 vaccine dose.